12th Ljudevit Jurak International Symposium on
Comparative Pathology
June 1-2, 2001

P. Stradina Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Riga, Latvia
We estimated the prevalence of long-term complications in diabetes (both types) and associated them with the control of diabetes and the potentially modifiable risk factors for diabetes including obesity, body fat distribution and life-style factors such as physical activity.
We evaluated the interrelationships between rates of diabetes, long-term complications, glycemic control and also the differences between the complications in different types of diabetes.
The analysis included 100 persons aged 25 to 76 years with diabetes mellitus (41 with type I, 59 with type II) at the P. Stradins Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Riga, Latvia. We used complete questionnaires, blood analysis data (creatinine, profile of lipoproteins, proteins); urine samples; BMI; and detection of microalbuminuria. Glycemia was evaluated by using glycosylated hemoglobin concentration.
We concluded  that diabetes control  is of critical importance for  prevention of serious complications including neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Some of the patients with diabetic complications had poor glycemic control, with glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations above 8%, which placed them at high risk of long-term complications.
Type I and type II diabetes differ in their etiology and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type II diabetes is associated with insulin resistance and often obesity, leading to hyperinsulinemia, beta-cell dysfunction, hyperglycemia, and eventually insulin deficiency. 
Cardiovascular disease is linked mainly to insulin resistance in diabetes type II; while cardiovascular disease in type I diabetes is closely linked to renal pathology.
The main long-term complication in diabetes type I is nephropathy, while in diabetes type II the leading long-term complication is coronary artery disease.
Poster Presentation